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Boston and New York.
The Riverside Press, Cambridge.



The Beginnings

Relations between the American colonies and the British government
     in the first half of the eighteenth century.
The Lords of Trade 2
The governors' salaries 3
Sir Robert Walpole 4
Views of the Lords of Trade as to the need for a union of the colonies 5
Weakness of the sentiment of union 6
The Albany Congress 7
Franklin's plan for a federal union (1754) 8, 9
Rejection of Franklin's plan 10
Shirley recommends a stamp act 11
The writs of assistance 12
The chief justice of New York 13
Otis's "Vindication" 14
Expenses of the French War 15
Grenville's resolves 16
Reply of the colonies 17
Passage of the Stamp Act 17, 18
Patrick Henry and the Parsons'Cause 18, 19
Resolutions of Virginia concerning the Stamp Act 20
The Stamp Act Congress 21, 22
Declaration of the Massachusetts assembly 22
Resistance to the Stamp Act in Boston 24
Debate in the House of Commons 25, 26
Repeal of the Stamp Act 27
The Duke of Grafton's ministry 28
Charles Townshend and his revenue acts 29-31
Attack upon the New York assembly 31-32
Parliament did not properly represent the British people 32-33
Difficulty of the problem 34
Representation of Americans in Parliament 35
Mr. Gladstone and the Boers 36-37
Death of Townshend 38
His political legacy to George III. 38
Character of George III. 39-40
English parties between 1760 and 1784 41
George III as a politician 42
His chief reason for quarrelling with the Americans 43-45


The Crisis

Character of Lord North 46
John Dickinson and the "Farmer's Letters" 47
The Massachusetts circular letter 48
Lord Hillsborough's instructions to Bernard 49
The "Illustrious Ninety-Two" 50
Impressment of citizens 51
Affair of the sloop Liberty 51-52
Statute of Henry VIII concerning "treason committed abroad" 53
Samuel Adams makes up his mine (1768) 54-57
Arrival of troops in Boston 58-59
Letters of "Vindex" 60
Debate in Parliament 60-62
All the Townshend acts, except the one imposing a duty upon tea,
     to be repealed
Recall of Governor Bernard 62
Character of Thomas Hutchinson 63
Resolutions of Virginia concerning the Townshend acts 64
Conduct of the troops in Boston 65
Assault on James Otis 65
The "Boston Massacre" 66-68
Some of its lessons 69-72
Lord North becomes prime minister 73
Action of the new York merchants 73
Assemblies convened in strange places 74
Taxes in Maryland 74
The "Regulators" in North Carolina 75
Affair of the schooner Gaspee 76
The salaries of the Massachusetts judges 77
Jonathan Mayhew's suggestion (1766) 78
The committees of correspondence in Massachusetts 79
Intercolonial committees of correspondence 80
Revival of the question of taxation 81
The king's ingenious scheme for tricking the Americans into buying
     the East India Company's tea
How Boston became the battle-ground 84
Advice solemnly sought and given by the Massachusetts towns 84, 85
Arrival of the tea; meeting at the Old South 85, 87
The tea-ships place under guard 87
Rotch's dilatory manoeuvres 88
Great town-meeting at the Old South 89, 90
The tea thrown into the Harbour 90
Moral grandeur of the scene 91, 92
How Parliament received the news 93, 94
The Boston Port Bill 95
The Regulating Act 95, 96
Act relating to the shooting of citizens 96
the quartering of troops in town 97
The Quebec Act 97
General Gage sent to Boston 97, 98


The Continental Congress

Protests of the Whig Lords 100
Belief that the Americans would not fight 101
Belief that Massachusetts would not be supported by the other colonies 102
News of the Port Bill 102-103
Samuel Adams at Salem 104-105
Massachusetts nullifies the Regulating Act 106
John Hancock and Joseph Warren 107
The Suffolk County Resolves 108
Provincial Congress in Massachusetts 109
First meeting of the Continental Congress (Sept 5, 1774) 110
Debates in Parliament 111-112
William Howe appointed commander-in-chief of the forces in America 112
Richard, Lord Howe, appointed admiral of the fleet 113
Franklin returns to America 114
State of feeling in the middle colonies 115
Lord North's mistaken hopes of securing New York 116
Affairs in Massachusetts 117
Dr. Warren's oration at the Old South 118
Attempt to corrupt Samuel Adams 119
Orders to arrest Adams and Hancock 120
Paul Revere's ride 121
Pitcairn fires upon the yeomanry at Lexington 122
The troops repulsed at Concord; their dangerous situation 123
The retreating troops rescued by Lord Percy 124
Retreat continued from Lexington to Charlestown 125
Rising of the country; the British besieged in Boston 126
Effects of the news in England and in America 127
Mecklenburg County Resolves 128
Legend of the Mecklenburg "Declaration of Independence" 129
Benedict Arnold and Ethan Allan 129, 130
Capture of Ticonderoga and Crown Point 131
Second meeting of the Continental Congress 132
Appointment of George Washington to command the Continental army 133-136
The siege of Boston 136
Gage's proclamation 137
The Americans occupy Bunker's and Breed's hills 138
Arrival of Putnam, Stark and Warren 139
Gage decides to try an assault 140
First assault repulsed 140
Second assault repulsed 141
Prescott's powder gives out 142
Third Assault succeeds; the British take the hill 142
British and American losses 143
Excessive slaughter; significance of the battle 144-145
Its moral effects 146



Washington's arrival in Cambridge 147
Continental officers: Daniel Morgan 148
Benedict Arnold, John Stark, John Sullivan 149
Nathanael Greene, Henry Knox 150
Israel Putnam 151
Horatio Gates and Charles Lee 151
Lee's personal peculiarities 152-153
Dr. Benjamin Church 153
Difficult work for Washington 154-156
Absence of governmental organization 156
New government of Massachusetts (July, 1775) 157
Congress sends a last petition to the king 158-159
The king issues a proclamation and tries to hire troops from Russia 160
Catharine refuses; the king hires German troops 161
Indignation in Germany 162
Burning of Falmouth (Portland) 163
Effects of all this upon Congress 164
Montgomery's invasion of Canada and capture of Montreal 165
Arnold's march through the wilderness of Maine 166
Assault upon Quebec (December 31, 1775) 167
Total failure of the attempt upon Canada 168
The siege of Boston 169
Washington seizes Dorchester Heights (March 4, 1776) 170
The British troops evacuate Boston (March 17) 171
Movement toward independence; a provisional flag (Jan. 1, 1776) 172
Effect of the hiring of "myrmidons" 172
Thomas Paine 173
His pamphlet entitled "Common Sense" 174
Fulminations and counter-fulminations 175
The Scots in North Carolina 176
The fight at Moore's Creek; North Carolina declares for independence 177
Action of Rhode Island and Massachusetts 181
Resolution adopted in Congress May 15. 181-182
Instructions from the Boston town-meeting 182
Richard Henry Lee's motion in Congress 183
Debate on Lee's motion 184
Action of the other colonies; Connecticut and New Hampshire 185
New Jersey 185
Pennsylvania and Delaware 185-187
Maryland 187-188
The situation in New York 188-190
The Tryon plot 190
Final debate on Lee's motion 191
vote on Lee's motion 192
Form of the Declaration of Independence 193
Thomas Jefferson 193-194
The declaration was a deliberate expression of the sober thought of the
     American people



Lord Cornwallis arrives upon the scene 198
Battle of Fort Moultrie (June 28, 1776) 199-200
British plan for conquering the valley of the Hudson, and cutting the
     United Colonies in twain
Lord Howe's futile attempt to negotiate with Washington un-officially 202, 203
The military problem at New York 204-206
Importance of Brooklyn Heights 206
Battle of Long Island (August 27, 1776) 207-210
Howe prepares to besiege the Heights 210
But Washington slips away with his army 211
And robs the British of the most golden opportunity ever offered them 212
The confernce at Staten Island 213
General Howe takes the city of New York September 15 214
But Mrs. Lindley Murray saves the garrison 215
Attack upon Harlem Heights 215
The new problem before Howe 216
He moves upon Throg's Neck, but Washington changes base 217
Baffled at White Plains, Howe tries a new plan 217-218
Washington's orders in view of the emergency 218
Congress meddles with the situation and muddles it 219
Howe takes Fort Washington by storm (November 16) 220
Washington and Greene 221
Outrageous conduct of Charles Lee 221-222
Greene barely escapes from Fort Lee (November 20) 223
Lee intrigues against Washington 224
Washington retreats into Pennsylvania 224-225
Reinforcements come from Schuyler 226
Fortunately for the Americans, the British capture Charles Lee
     (December 13)
The times that tried men's souls 228
Washington prepares to strike back 229
He crosses the Delaware and pierces the British centre at Trenton
     (December 26)
Cornwallis comes up to retrieve the disaster 231
And thinks he has run down the "old fox" at the Assunpink
     (January 2, 1777)
And again severs the British line at Princeton (January 3) 233
General retreat of the British upon New York 234
The tables completely turned 235-236
Washington's superb generalship 237
Effects in England 238
And in France 239
Franklin's arrival in France 240
Secret aid from France 241
Lafayette goes to America 241
Efforts toward remodelling the Continental army 243-248


Second Blow at the Centre

Invasion of New York by Sir Guy Carleton 249
Arnold's preparations 250
Battle of Valcour Island (Oct 11, 1776) 251
Congress promotes five junior brigadiers over Arnold (February 19,
Character of Philip Schuyler 253
Horatio Gates 254-255
Gates intrigues with Schuyler 256
His unseemly behaviour before Congress 257
Charges against Arnold 257-258
Arnold defeats Tryon at Ridgefield (April 27, 1777) 259
Preparations for the summer campaign 260
The military centre of the United States was the state of New York 261
A second blow was to be struck at the centre; the plan of campaign 262
The plan was unsound; it separated the British forces too widely and
     gave the Americans the advantage of interior lines
Germaine's fatal error; he overestimated the strength of the Tories 265
Too many unknown quantities 265-266
Danger from New England ignored 266
Germaine's negligence; the dispatch that was never sent 267
Burgoyne advances upon Ticonderoga 268
Phillips seizes Mount Defiance 269
Evacuation of Ticonderoga 269-270
Battle of Hubbardton (July 7) 270
One swallow does not make a summer 271
The king's glee; wrath of John Adams 271
Gates was chiefly to blame 272
Burgoyne's difficulties beginning 273
Schuyler wisely evacuates Fort Edward 273
Enemies gathering in Burgoyne's rear 274
Use of Indian auxiliaries 275
Burke ridicules the address 276
The story of Jane McCrea 277-279
The Indians desert Burgoyne 280
Importance of Bennington; Burgoyne sends a German force against it 280-281
Stark prepares to receive the Germans 282
Battle of Bennington (August 16) nearly the whole German army
     captured in the field
Effect of the news; Burgoyne's enemies multiply 285
Advance of St. Leger upon Fort Stanwix 286
Herkimer marches against him; Herkimer's plan 287
Failure of the plan 288
Thayendanegea prepares an ambuscade 288
Battle of Oriskany (August 6) 289-290
Retreat of the Tories 290
Retreat of the patriot army 291
Colonel Willett's sortie; first hoisting of the stars and stripes 291
Death of Herkimer 292
Arnold arrives at Schuyler's camp 293
And volunteers to retrieve Fort Stanwix 294
Yan Yost Cuyler and his stratagem 295
Flight of St.Leger (August 22) 295
Burgoyne's dangerous situation 296
Schuyler superseded by Gates 296-297
Position of the two armies (August 19-September 12) 297-298



Why Sir William Howe went to Chesapeak Bay 299
Charles Lee in captivity 300
Treason of Charles Lee 301-303
Folly of moving upon Philadelphia at the "rebel capital" 303-304
Effect of Lee's advice 305
Washington's masterly campaign in New Jersey (June, 1777) 306
Uncertainty as to Howe's movements 307
Howe's letter to Burgoyne 308-309
Burgoyne's fate was practically decided when Howe arrived at Elkton 311
Washington's reasons for offering battle 312
He chooses a very strong position 313
Battle of the Brandywine (September 11) 313-316
Washington's skill in detaining the enemy 317
The British enter Philadelphia (September 26) 317
Significance of Forts Mercer and Mifflin 318
The situation at Germantown 318-319
Washington's audacious plan 320
Battle of Germantown (October 4) 321-323
Howe captures Forts Mercer and Mifflin 324
Burgoyne recognizes the fatal error of Germaine 325
Nevertheless he crosses the Hudson River 326
First Battle at Freeman's Farm (September 19) 326-327
Quarrel between Gates and Arnold 328
Burgoyne's supplies cut off 329
Second battle at Freeman's Farm (October 7); the British totally defeated
     by Arnold
The British army is surrounded 333
Sir Henry Clinton comes up the river, but it is too late 334
The silver bullet 335
Burgoyne surrenders (October 17) 335-338
Schulyer's magnanimity 338
Bad faith in Congress 339-342
The behaviour of Congress was simply inexcusable 342
What became of the captured army 343

INDEX AT THE BACK OF THE BOOK (for both volumes in Vol. II) 291


George Washington from a miniature enamelled on copper by Henry
     Bone, R. A.; after a crayon portrait made in 1796 by William Birch
Battle of Long Island, August 27, 1776, from Stedman's American War
     with some additions
Operations in New York and New Jersey, 1776-1777, from a sketch by
     the author
Burgoyne's campaign, July-October, 1777, ditto. 262
Battle of the Brandywine, September 11, 1777, ditto. 314
Battle of Germantown, October 4, 1777, ditto 320
First battle at Freeman's Farm, September 19, 1777, ditto 326
Second battle at Freeman's Farm, October 7, 1777, also called battle of
     Bemis Heights, or of Stillwater, ditto
Surrender of Burgoyne at Saratoga October 17, 1777, ditto 336



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