SOURCE: History of the Town of Candia, Rockingham County, NH, from its First Settlement to the Present Time; J. Bailey Moore; Manchester, NH; 1893.
On January 18, 1777, the General Assembly at Exeter passed an act for regulating prices with the following preamble:
THE WAR OF THE REVOLUTION-(Continued.)
"Whereas the exorbitant prices of the necessary and convenient articles of life, and also of labor, within this state, at this time of distress (unless speedily and effectually remedied) will be attended with the most fatal and pernicious consequences."
The act fixes among others the following prices:
Potatoes, in fall,
Potatoes at any season,
||Stockings per pair,
||Flannel per yard,
Pork, from 100 to 140 lbs.,
||0 4 �
Pork, from 140 to 200 lbs.,
||Cot'n, or C. & linen,
||Good N. E. bar iron,
||Farm labor in sum.,
West India Rum,
||Mechanics. in proportion, as to usage.
N. England Rum,
At a town meeting held May 19, 1777, Moses Baker, Walter Robie, Abraham Fitts, and Benjamin Cass were chosen a committee to affix and settle prices in addition to the regulation act.
January 19, 1778, a committee was appointed to procure our quota of Continental soldiers for three years or during the war, and at an adjournment, in February, another com-
Sketch of Samuel Dudley
mittee of five was chosen to make further trial at once.
April 20, the committee was instructed to make further trial, and hire money and pursue the business without loss of time.
In the early part of August, Captain Moses Baker marcheed from Candia with a company of men, which was raised in Chester, Raymond and Candia; to join in opposing the attempt of Burgoyne to send an army to New York through Vermont; but he did not arrive at Bennington in time to participate in the battle at that place. His company was attached to Lieutenant-Colonel Welch's regiment of General Whipple's brigade, and marched to Saratoga. This company was engaged in the battles of Stillwater and Saratoga.
The following are the names of the officers and privates:
Moses Baker, Captain; Abraham Fitts, Lieutenant; Jonathan Bagley, Ensign; Isaiah Rowe and Jonathan Clifford, Sergeants; Sewell Brown, Jonathan Ring, John Sargent, Nathaniel Burpee, Jacob Clifford, Benjamin Hubbard, Richard Clough, Stephen Palmer, Enoch Rowell, James Hazzard, Silas Cammet, Samuel Bagley, John Hills, Jesse Eaton, Privates.
AN OLD DOCUMENT.
Copy of a diary kept by Lieutenant Abraham Fitts, of Captain Moses Baker's company of volunteers, who marched from Candia, and joined the Northern Continental army at Saratoga, in September, 1777
Inlisted Saturday ye 27 of Sept 1777.
Met & Drawd powder tuesday ye 30 of Sept.
Marcht from Browns on friday ye 3d of October to hoyts in amesburytown, Robies in perrytown 6 miles to Lanes in Fisherfield 22 miles from hopkinton meeting house. Hanika is Southerd from Lanes.
Lodgd at Clarks in fisherfield 5 mile from Lanes by Great Sunnepy.
Marcht Saturday ye 4th from Clarks to grouts 21 mile from Clarks, thro part of Saville by E Bradburys then in unity by Judkins * * * to grouts at No. 4.
Sabbath October ye 5th marcht from Grouts to No Joytown [?] 3 mile then over the ferry to Reeds in Rocking-
ham in the State of Vermont 3 mile & Logd a Sabbath Day night.
Marcht ye 6th on monday morning from Reeds & marcht by Chandlers in Chester to ottersons in Kent 20 miles & put up & Lost ye Little Bag.
Octobr ye 7th tuesday morning marcht from ottersons by Capt Rogerss in Kent & Barlows in Brumley & thro part of winhall 20 mile to Allens in manchester.
Octobr ye 8 on Wednesday morning from allens by head Quarters in manchester Southerly through part of Sunderland & turnd Short to the Right hand westerly thro allenton & thro Sunderland * * * in Southerly to Camebridge 27 miles to Besses.
thursday morning oct ye 9: marcht from Besses in Cambridge by the Frame of a meeting house a Crooked Road to Botten kills by tiffs mills twelve miles to house owned by Nathan tanner.
Friday morning oct ye 10 at twelve o'clock precisely Larumd & marcht to Saratogue from thenc to the mouth of the River above Slytars after the Regulars & marcht Back again to our Lodging a tiffsmills.
Saturday October ye 11 marcht from Lodging at Bottenkil mills to ye Lines at ye Narrows at Bottenkil went to Intrenching.
I came Back with the horses & Sargent Row & Deacon hill to our Lodging & there Staid.
Sabbath morning ye 12th went up to the Brest work and Back again.
monday ye 13 went up again and Carried half a Bushel of potatoes.
ye 14th tuesday Sessation on arms I went up & hazzad came Down & Back.
ye 15 wednesday Staid to home at tanners & went Down to Saratogue Sessation Day again.
ye 16 went up to the Lines & worked and Sessation but all alarmed till 2 o:Clock & came back.
ye 17 Friday Mr. Burgoyne marcht off the Ground & Genl Gates marcht In Then we marcht to Saratoge put up in a Barn
Saturday ye 18: marcht from Saratoge to Still water &
went Down below for a Front Guard & put up in a Barn 16 mil *.
Sabbath ye 19th marcht from the Barn in Scattercook to tyeoxyok and Capt Baker & I put up at Colo Derwent in Cambridge 12 miles.
monday ye 20 11 o clock marcht from Dertworts in St Croix Cambridg to Abbotts in Sd St Croix & it Raind while towards Day & then Snowd till morning 5 miles.
tuesday 21st Early in the morning marcht from Abbotts by Duch husack thro pownall into williamstown by the meeting house 20 odd mile to Thos Duttens & it snowd most all Day.
ye 22d Staid at Duttons in williams Town.
23 march from Duttens to meckenes 2 mile.
ye 24 march from meckeenes by Williamstown meeting house thro Lanesborough into pitsfield to Beldens by the Iron works 18 mile & 1-2.
Saturday ye 25 marcht from Beldens by pitsfield meeting house to graveses 6 mile
Sabbath ye 26 march from Grav * * over hoosick mountain to pearses in partridgrield to mile.
Monday ye 27 marcht from pearses to agars in worthenton and Drawd some Salt meat & then was Dismised by Coll Weltch in a rage & went to Niles:s the Blacksmith & staid & left Capt Baker Behind 2 miles.
tuesday morning 28 marcht from Niless by herricks the tavern in Chesterfield to Kings and staid & eat pork & cabbage * & itt Snowd & haild & Raind a very Severe Storm indeed 4 miles
Wednesday ye 29th marcht from Eleazer kings by fairfields town in williamsburg & thro N: hampton over the Ferry to old hadley to one Smiths & Staid all Night & left Capt Baker & Silas Cammet Behind 15 miles.
Thursday ye 30th of October marcht from Smiths In hadley into amherst by the meeting house & took Breakfast at Joseph Easmans got the meeting house in Shutesbury about one o:clock by a Stone pound went on thro New Salem to petersham by the meeting house 3-4 of a mile to Clemmonses--30 mile.
Friday ye 31st marcht from Clemmenses in petersham by
templeton meeting house & it Stood a Little one Side of the way at the Right hand to martains in Lunnenburgh mile & half from the meetting house 27 mile.
Saturday ye 1st of Novembr 1777. march from martains by lunnenburgh meeting house & townsind meeting house Stood on a hill to Gyles' & took Breakfast then to hollis by the meeting house then thro merrimack over the River to Litchfield & put up at Widow Parkers 30 mile.
Lieutenant Fitts reached Candia on Sunday, November 2I.
| mr hubbard paid for milk at Cockrans
| I paid at allens in manchester for 4 Suppers & mare keeping
| Sargent Rowe paid at Besses for keeping mare in Cambridge
| for a loaf of bread
| octobr: ye 10th mr hubard paid--
| Sergnt Rowe paid
| oct: ye 21 Sewal paid--
| oct ye 23 I paid at Duttens
| Sergnt Rowe paid
| Due to Sewal Brown from me
| Due from mr hubbard to me
| Due to Sewal from Sargent Rowe
| Sewal owes mr hubbard--
| Fitts J Rowe Ste palmer E Rowel 6d piece to J Clifford for
| Joseph Clifford owes me
The above diary is given here as an illustration of the simplicity of the habits of the men who fought to secure the liberties of the country, and the difference between the manner of performing long journeys which prevailed a hundred years ago, when there were no stages or steam cars, or few if any carriages, and that which prevails at the present day. Lieutenant Fitts, though his knowledge of the principles of grammar was limited, was a man of sound judgment and intelligence in the management of public as well as private affairs.
Captain Baker's company proceeded from Candia to Saratoga by the way of Henniker, Fisherville, Bradford, Unity, No. 4 now Charlestown, Rockingham to Chester, Sunder-
land, Arlington, to Saratoga. They returned home by another route soon after the surrender of Burgoyne.
BATTLES OF STILLWATER AND SARATOGA.
After the battle of Bennington, the soldiers from many parts of New England rushed to the standard of General Gate, the commander of the Northern Continental army, who soon found himself at the head of five thousand men.
On the 12th of September, 1777, Burgoyne crossed the Hudson, and on the 17th moved forward to Saratoga and encamped within three miles of the American army. The next day, the battle of Stillwater took place. It began by skirmishes between the scouting parties of both sides, and, in a short time, the whole of both armies were engaged. The Americans took refuge in a dense wood, from which they poured a galling fire. The British lines were soon broken. the Americans made a charge and pursued the enemy to an eminence, when they rallied and charged in their turn and the Americans were driven into the woods, from which they again poured a deadly fire. Again the British fell back and, at every charge which was made upon them, their artillery fell into the hands of the Americans. Night soon put an end to the contest, and the Americans retired to their camp having lost between three and four hundred men. The British lost over five hundred.
On the 7th of October, a general battle was fought at Saratoga. The Americans, under General Poor, commenced the battle by making an attack on the left flank of the enemy, while Morgan attacked the right. In about an hour the British gave way. The Americans pursued them to their entrenchments and night coming on the battle ceased. The Americans rested on their arms that night upon the field. The next day Burgoyne, finding himself completely surrounded and that his supplies were completely cut off, surrendered his whole armyof five thousand, seven hundred and fifty-two men as prisoners of war. Thirty-five field pieces and five thousand stand of arms fell into the hands of the Amercans.
After the battle of Bennington, Lieutenant-Colonel Emerson was engaged in guard and supply duty. On the 31st
of August, he was addressed by General Stark respecting an expedition he had conducted to Otter Creek. On September 8, he was requested to order a corporals' guard from his command, to take cattle and bring them from pasture. Again Stark ordered him to send prisoners under his care, as Major Rensalear might request an examination, understanding that they had been reported to be tories.
The following is an order to Colonel Emerson from General Stark by Adjutant General John Casey: "Please to order or detach one corporal and three men from your party as a guard. Take care of the cattle delivered into your custody by the leader. They are to be brought back from the pasture in the afternoon."
In September, 1776, two more regiments were raised in this state, to re-enforce the Continental army in New York. In the seventh company of one of these regiments, which was commanded by Colonel Thomas Tash, Samuel Buswell, of Candia, was Ensign, and Ichabod Robie, William Anderson, Moses Turner, John Morrison, John Clifford, Samuel Mooers, Thomas Wilson, also of Candia, were privates. The regiment was stationed at one time at Fishkill, N. Y.
At a town meeting, held January 19, 1778, it was voted that Colonel Nathaniel Emerson, Lieutenant Samuel Towle and Mr. Thomas Dearborn be a committee to procure our quota of Continental soldiers during the war or for three years, and that they be empowered to procure them in the best manner and the most reasonable rate they can, and make return of their doings at the adjournment of that meeting.
Feb. 2. "Voted that the vote passed upon the 25th of April, 1777, is reconsidered, and that the money voted to those persons that has done service in the war in times past be applied in hiring our quota of men for the Continental Army."
Adjourned meeting, February S. `78.
` Voted to choose a committee of five to make further trial to procure our quota of Continental soldiers: Lieutenant Jacob Worthen, Walter Robie, Esq., Major Moses Baker, Mr. John Clay, and Mr. Jeremiah Bean be a committee.
"Voted that the selectmen hire money to procure our quota of Continental soldiers as they shall stand in need until it can be raised by way of tax."
At an adjourned meeting held April 25, 1778, it was voted to accept the report of the committee, which was appointed to make inquiry as to what time and money was expended in supporting the war since the Concord fight, which is as follows, viz.:
Concord men at one shilling per day and extra charges.
Eight men with Lieutenant Emerson, four dollars each.
Ditto with Lieutenant Dusten, four dollars each.
Winter Hill men with Captain Baker, one dollar each.
One year's men to New York, one dollar each.
Ditto to Deleware, two dollars each.
Tyconderoga men, thirteen dollars each.
New York men last year, two dollars each.
Joseph Bean to Canada, twenty dollars.
At a town meeting held August 3, 1778, it was voted that Walter Robie, Jonathan Brown and John Lane be a committee to take into consideration and make inquiry into the condition of the families of those now commissioned offi cers and private soldiers, who have engaged in the Continental service for their parish for three years.
At a town meeting held October 26, 1779, it was voted that the parish comply with the prices stated by the Colonial and State Convention, and that John Lane, Jacob Worthen, Caleb Brown, John Clifford, Benjamin Batchelder and Edward Robie be a committee to state the prices upon articles not mentioned by the convention, and they were empowered to act from time to time, until the next annual meeting.
At a town meeting held July 10, 1780, it was voted that Jeremiah Bean, Silas Cammet, Walter Baker, Zebulon Winslow be appointed a committee to assist the selectmen in providing a quota of beef for the Continental army.
At a meeting held September 25, 1780, it was voted not to accept the plan laid before the committee that was chosen, to make an average of what is done by the militia' in this parish since the beginning of the war with Britain.
At a meeting held February 5, 1781, it was voted that
John Carr, Walter Robie, Jererniah Bean, David Bean dna. Edward Robie be a committee to complete our quota of Continental soldiers, agreeable to an act of the General Court.
PAY ROLL OF CAPTAIN MOSES BAKER'S COMPANY, WHICH MARCHED FROM CANDIA TO JOIN THE CONTINENTAL ARMY AT SARATOGA.
Moses Baker, Captain, time of services, 1 month, 27 days, paid 15 pounds, 4 shillings.
Abraham Fitts, time of service, 1 month, 8 days, paid 10 pounds, 3 shillings, 2 pence.
Jonathan Bagley, Ensign, time of service, 1 month, 3 days, paid 7 pounds, 12 shillings.
Isaiah Rowe, Sergeant, 6 pounds, 4 shillings, 2 pence.
Travel of the company out, 161 miles, 3 pounds, 2 shillings, 3 pence. Travel home, 109 miles, 10 shillings, 8 pence. Whole amount, 9 pounds, 1 shilling, 1 penny.
The privates were paid in wages, 3 pounds and 3 shillings each, and for travel out and home, 2 pounds, 16 shillings, 1 pence. Total amount, 8 pounds, 10 shillings, 11 pence.
The following is a record of the six months men raised in Candia, in 1781 and 1782, as returned to the state authorities by the selectmen of the town:
David Bagley, Daniel Libbey, John Lovering, Ezekiel Smith, Peter Cammet, Moses Norris, Benjamin Sanborn, Nehemiah Leavitt, William Patten, John Caldwell, John Kent, Jonathan Norris, Ebenezer Eaton, John Moore, JasonHazard.
The following is a list of the names of men from Candia as returned by Colonel John Webster, in 1781:
John Wason, Nathaniel Underhill, Jonathan Davis, Thomas Anderson.
The total amount of the abatement of the taxes of soldiers, in Candia, made in the taxes for the year 1775, was 13 pounds, 10 shillings.
Moses Dusten was a captain in the second New Hampshire regiment, in 1781.
The following is a copy of a bill which was presented by the State of New Hampshire to the United States Govern-
ment for services in a campaign in Rhode Island:
"The United States to the State of New Hampshire, Dr. Brigadier-General Whipple's Staff Roll--Volunteers to Rhode Island, in 1778.
Colonel Moses Nichols' Staff Roll. Subsistence to Nathaniel Emerson, Lieutenant-Colonel.
|26 days at 4-10,
|To John Webster, Major, 26 days at 3-7,
|Captain Joseph Dearborn's Co. No. 7, Nichols' Regiment commissioned officers,
|3 Sergeants, 2 mos., 8 days, at 60 s.,
|3 Corporals, 4 mos., 18 days, at 44 s.,
|For Privates in full, 26 mos., 26 days, at 40s.,
|4175 miles at 1 d. out,
|5175 do. home at 1 d.,
|Captains' subsistence, 26 days, at 45 S., 0 19 0|
|Lieuts. and Ensigns' subs't, 26 each, at 23 s.
Lieutenant Thomas Dearborn, who served at various times and places in the Revolutionary army, was serving as a Lieutenant at Rhode Island in Colonel Peabody's regiment, in 1778, where our forces were co-operating with the French fleet to expel the British from that state. On August 23, he was killed by a cannon ball, which was fired from a British battery. It is said that, when he fell, one of his soldiers, who had been badly wounded in the leg, was endeavoring to get to the rear, but could make little progress without assistance. Lieutenant Dearborn immediately came up to help him along, when his men shouted to him to look out for himself and get out of the range of the British artillery. He refused to leave the wounded man alone to perish. The two men were making good progress towatds the rear, while the enemy were rapidly advancing. Just at the moment when Dearborn was helping the soldier over a stone wall, a cannon ball struck him in the head and killed him instantly. The wounded soldier, by creeping along behind the wall escaped.
At that time, many of the officers carried a gun in the army, as well as a sword, and Lieutenant Dearborn had his gun in his hands when he fell.
He came to Candia from Chester about the year 1764, and settled on the lot near the Congregational Meeting House, where the late Nathaniel B. Hall resided many years. He married Mary Morrison, who was brought up in the family of Captain Moses Baker. They had four children, viz. David, John, Thomas and Samuel. The last mentioned was the father of the late Leonard Dearborn, and the grandfather of Leonard F. Dearborn, who resides at East Candia.
The gun which Lieutenant Dearborn carried at the time he was killed came into the possession of Honorable Abraham Emerson, and the sword is now owned by Isaac Fitts.
The widow of Lieutenant Dearborn married Joseph Palmer and had another family.
Many years ago, a story was current in the town to the effect that, one day the wife of Lieutenant Dearborn, while sitting by a window, thought she distinctly saw her husband, who was absent in Rhode Island, coming up the street. She ran to the door to welcome him, but upon opening it no person could be seen. The circumstance struck her very forcibly as a bad omen, and she fell to the floor where she was found in a senseless condition. It was further said that her husband was shot at the very time she thought she saw him coming up the street.
Moses Dusten, of Candia, who was a captain in Colonel Reid's regiment in 1788, and in attendance on a court-martial at Springfield, Massachusetts, and at Charlestown in New Hampshire in 1781, presented the following bill against the United States Government for extra expenses:
The United States, Dr. To Captain Moses Dusten.
For extra expense for myself and horse attending on Court-Martial at Springfield and Charlestown in New Hampshire, from April 8th to June loth 1780.
|From Danbury to Springfield, go miles,
|Six days at Springfield,
|From Springfield to Charlestown, 90 miles,
|Four weeks and three days at Charlestown,
|From Charlestown to Springfield, 90 miles,
|From Springfield to Danbury, 90 miles,
|From Danbury to Westpoint, 40 miles,
Bounties paid Candia by the United States Government
|Wingate's Reg. Canada, 13 men
|Continentals, 5 men, at 30�.
|Continentals, 5 men,
||308 10 0 }
| 4 men,
||382 00 0 }
| 4 men,
||398 00 0 }
|Mooney's Reg., R. Island, 2 men,
|New Levies, 6 mos. 6 men 34-10 each,
|Nichols & Bartlett's Reg. 10 men,
|Reynold's Reg., 4 men a 18� each,
|New Levies, 6 mos. 4 men 45-10 each
|Continentals, 8 men.
|Stark's Brigade, 21 men.
The following letters from Captain Moses Dusten, of Candia, to his wife, give a very striking illustration of the difficulties which were encountered by the soldiers of the Revolution and the people generally, on account of the scarcity of money and the depreciation of the currency
|NEW HAMPSHIRE VILLAGE, May 6, 1781|
I take this opportunity to inform you that I arrived at camp in eight days from Haverhill, and find all friends in good health. I hope that you are enjoying the same blessing of health. I find that money is much depreciated. On the way betwixt here and New Hampshire, in the room of giving �75 for one, I was obliged to give 120 and 140 in many places. If that should be the case in Hampshire, I would not have you let those notes go out of your hand, except you can put the money at the same lay that you could when I came away. By all means
make inquiry about the matter before you let them go, for I have lost money enough that way already. Send me word about the matter the first opportunity you have.
I ever remain your loving husband,
N. B. If you find that it will answer for you to take the money, I would have you send me some the first opportunity that you have, for I cannot sell my horse, and I am destitute of money, and know not what to do for money to pay for washing and other necessaries that I cannot do without.
Remember me to all inquiring friends. M. D.
CAMP, NEW HAMPSHIRE VILLAGE, NEW YORK, May 18, 1781.
I take this opportunity to write to you, hoping that you and the children are all well, as I am at present. Since I wrote to you, we have had the misfortune of having one colonel killed and one major killed, one doctor wounded and one lieutenant wounded and both taken prisoners, one sergeant and about forty privates killed and taken down on the lines. I am ordered to go on command tomorrow morning, but which way I cannot certainly tell, but I will write to you and inform you the first opportunity that I have. Since I wrote you the last letter, I have had some prospect of getting a small matter of money, so that you need not trouble yourself about sending me any if you should have it to spare. Money depreciates so fast that I think it not worth your while to take any more than that note of David, if that will answer your end, but I would have you do as you think best.
I ever remain your loving husband,
[Post Mark.] Captain Moses Dusten, Candia, New Hampshire. To be left at Esquire Webster's, Chester.
Captain Dusten was a great grandson of the famous Hannah Dusten, who was taken by a band of Indians from Haverhill, Massachusetts; and brought to Boscawn, near Concord, where, with the assistance of another captive, she killed all of her savage enemies while they were asleep, after which she returned to her home.
Paid Margaret, the wife of John Mitchell, a Continental soldier for Candia, �18, 6 s.
Paid several persons for interest on money that was hired to pay Continental soldiers, �4, 6 s., 6 d.
Account for men raised by the state to fill up the Continental battalion, in the year 1779, for one year, or for the war:
John Clark, for the war, �150.
John Anderson, for the war, �150.
John Taylor, for 12 months, �90. Travel to Springfield, 6 shillings.
John Moore, for the war, �150.
Voted that Walter Robie, Abraham Fitts, Dr. Samuel Mooers and Nathaniel Burpee be a committee to draw instructions for our Representative to the Grand Assembly to lay before the citizens of the parish for their approbation.
At a town meeting held April 25, 1777, it was voted that the money voted to those persons who had done service in hiring our quota of men for the Continental army, is hereby recommended.
The following is a copy of the instructions of the freeholders of the Parish of Candia to Moses Baker, then representative
It is the voice of the people of Candia that the Eighth article in the Confederation on agreement, is not expressed so plain to our understanding as that it should not admit of an exception. We think that the states ought to be taxed according, in some manner at least, to their real and personal estate and number of votes, not particularly by lands and buildings. As to the Ninth and Tenth articles, we think there ought to be a provision that one or more of the New England States be of the same mentioned. As to other things we have no exception that appears to us natural, but that we approve the same.
The following are the names of Candia men, who served in Captain Joseph Dearborn's company, of Colonel Wyman's regiment against Canada in 1776:
Benjamin Cass, Peter Mooers, Joshua Moore, Ezekiel Knowles, Enoch Rowell, Sergeant, David Hill, Drummer. Each private received ten pounds, four shillings and nine
pence. The sergeants received eight shillings extra, the drummer, four shillings.
The following Candia men served in Captain Samuel McConnell's company, of Colonel David Gilman's regiment in the Continental army in New York, in 1776:
Ichabod Robie, Sergeant, John Clark, Corporal, Amos Knowles, John Clay, Paul Eaton.
THE following is a list of the names of the Candia soldiers, who served in Captain Stephen Dearborn's company, of Colonel Stickney's regiment in Stark's brigade, of the Northern Continental army, in 1777, and were present at the battle of Bennington:
THF WAR OF THE REVOLUTION-(Concluded.)
Nathaniel Maxfield, Ichabod Robie, Joseph Cass, Sergeant, Thomas Dearborn, Sergeant, Israel Clifford, John Cammet, Benjamin Smith, Anthony Clifford, Samuel Mooers, Jr., Samuel Dearborn, James Libbey, Benjamin Eaton, Benjamin Wadleigh, Oliver Smith, Enoch Colby, John Clay, John Bagley, Moses Emerson, Thomas Wilson.
Captain Joseph Dearborn's company, of Colonel Moses Nichols' regiment, served in Rhode Island from August 5th to April 28th, in 1778. The following are the names of the Candia men who belonged to the company:
Benjamin Cass, Lieutenant; Jacob Worthen, Ensign; Benjamin Batchelder, Sergeant; Zebulon Winslow, Corporal; Aaron Brown, Corporal; Obededom Hall, Jonathan Cammet, Silas Cammet, Walter Clay, Henry Clark, Joseph Bean, Amos Knowles, Enoch Colby, Thomas Wilson, Oliver Smith, Burleigh Smith, William Shannon, Sewell Brown, Jonathan Pillsbury.
The following is a list of the names of soldiers, who served in the war of the Revolution, and were credited to Candia. Many of the men belonged to other places, but were employed by the Candia authorities to fill up their quotas from time to time
||John Clark, Jr.,|
|Eben Eaton, Jr.,
Sketch of Francis Patten
|Samuel Mooers, Jr.,
||Enoch Rowells, Jr.,|
|Isaac Worthen. |
It is believed that the foregoing list of the names of the Candia soldiers who served in the war is substantially correct. It will be noticed that a large proportion of the most prominent and wealthy men in the town, including many town officers, served in the ranks as privates, and never thought of asking for a commission. It is quite remarkable, considering the length of the war, that so few were killed or seriously wounded or died while serving in the field.
It is probable that the most of those soldiers who came from other towns and enlisted to fill the quotas of Candia, did so to secure the bounties which were offered. Many of
these, as well as some of those who belonged to the town, enlisted several times each during the first three or four years of the war for short campaigns of from one to three months, and received bounties upon each enlistment. Two or three of those who came from other towns were bounty jumpers and deserters; but the most of them served their full time and were honorably discharged.
A few Candia men, in the course of the war, enlisted in other towns. In the fifteenth volume of the New Hampshire State papers, in which is contained an account of the New Hampshire men who enlisted in Massachusetts regiment, it is stated that Moses Turner, aged 23, James Libby, aged 22, and Stephen Palmer, aged 24, all of Candia, New Hampshire, enlisted in a regiment at Salem, Massachusetts, April 20, 1778. It is also stated that James Libby, of Candia, enlisted for the town of, Raymond, in 1781.
During the first two years of the Revolutionary war, the majority of the soldiers who belonged in Candia, were enlisted to serve in the armies which were grappling with the enemy on or near the territory of New England, and within from two to five days' march of their homes. They were sometimes organized into companies or parts of companies, and marched together to the field of conflict, and their names were placed upon the rolls of the regiments which they served with some degree of order and -regularity. At a later date, the quotas of men raised in the town were generally sent out in squads of from two to five to fill up armies in New York, Deleware, New Jersey, Virginia, and other distant localities. In such cases it is sometimes quite difficult to ascertain the facts in regard to the position of each soldier and the battles in which he was engaged. Some were with Washington at Trenton and Princeton, and some spent the gloomy winter at Valley Forge.
In the years 1780 and 1781, the people of Candia made heroic efforts to support the cause of liberty and independence. They taxed themselves over and over to raise money to pay the bounties of the soldiers and to support the families of such as had no means. In 1780, when the Continental Congress called for large quantities of beef for the use of the army, which was then contending with the
enemy in Pennsylvania, New Jersey and other middle states, the town responded to the call without delay. The selectmen, assisted by a committee, purchased the cattle and payments were made to a large extent in the notes of the town, signea by the selectmen. In some cases, the cattle which were collected in Candia were united with those which were being raised in Chester, Londonderry, and other towns in the vicinity, so as to make a large drove, and in this way were taken to Albany and from thence to the army. In some cases the cattle were driven to other points.
The following are some of the items relating to the subject which appear in the selectmen's accounts of the time:
November 15, 1780. Paid Zebulon Winslow's note for beef, 665 pounds sterling, 16 shillings.
Paid Silas Cammet ditto, 248 pounds, 15 shillings.
December 4. Paid John Sargent's beef note, 180 pounds.
Paid Nathaniel Burpee for hiring money to buy beef, 60 pounds.
Paid Jonathan Pillsbury's note for beef, 1683 pounds.
January 27, 1781. Paid Silas Cammet for beef, 123 pounds.
February 19. Paid Jeremiah Bean 15 shillings for pasturing an ox one month.
Paid Silas Cammet for two oxen do. one month, 30 shillings.
Paid Edward Robie for driving cattle, 9 shillings.
During the last two or three years, the Revolutionary war dragged along slowly with varying success. Sometimes the Americans gained a battle, and sometimes the British were successful, but neither side gained much advantage upon the whole.
In the autumn of 1781, General Cornwallis, the commander of a large British force, established his headquarters at Yorktown, Virginia. In this position he was attacked at all points by the American troops, his supplies were cut off, and he was unable to move. On the 19th of October, he was compelled to surrender his entire army, consisting of upwards of seven thousand men, to General Washington.
This great victory raised the spirits of the Americans
throughout all the country, for all felt that it decided the contest in favor of the Americans. There was some fighting after the surrender in some localities for nearly two years; but no extensive campaigns were planned by either side. During that period the Americans were careful to keep an army in the field so as to be prepared for every emergency. The people of Candia continued to support the cause of liberty, doing everything in their power.
Retyped and coded by Kathy Leigh, June 7, 2004.
On September 3, 1783, a treaty of peace was made at Paris by the British and American Commissioners, and the United States became an independent nation. On the 3d of November, 1783, the Revolutionary army was disbanded and the soldiers returned to their homes.
Candia, part 1